The Radiometric Dating Game Radiometric dating methods estimate the age of rocks using calculations based on the decay rates of radioactive elements such as uranium, strontium, and potassium. On the surface, radiometric dating methods appear to give powerful support to the statement that life has existed on the earth for hundreds of millions, even billions, of years. We are told that these methods are accurate to a few percent, and that there are many different methods. We are told that of all the radiometric dates that are measured, only a few percent are anomalous. This gives us the impression that all but a small percentage of the dates computed by radiometric methods agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found, and that all of these various methods almost always give ages that agree with each other to within a few percentage points. Since there doesn’t seem to be any systematic error that could cause so many methods to agree with each other so often, it seems that there is no other rational conclusion than to accept these dates as accurate. However, this causes a problem for those who believe based on the Bible that life has only existed on the earth for a few thousand years, since fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be over million years old by radiometric methods, and some fossils are found in rocks that are dated to be billions of years old. If these dates are correct, this calls the Biblical account of a recent creation of life into question. After study and discussion of this question, I now believe that the claimed accuracy of radiometric dating methods is a result of a great misunderstanding of the data, and that the various methods hardly ever agree with each other, and often do not agree with the assumed ages of the rocks in which they are found. I believe that there is a great need for this information to be made known, so I am making this article available in the hopes that it will enlighten others who are considering these questions.
Alternating patterns of distinct laminae are commonly identified within glacial lake deposits and are generally interpreted in the following way: However, there is actually no empirical evidence to back the claim that varves form as annual deposits over extended periods of time. It appears then, that claiming a varve is an annual event is an assumption in itself; one steeped in uniformitarian thought, but not reality.
tree definition: 1. a tall plant that has a wooden trunk and branches that grow from its upper part: 2. another type of tall plant, without a wooden trunk: 3. a tall plant that has a wooden trunk and branches growing from its upper part. Learn more.
The Tree of Life is one of the most pervasive and enduring legends in the history of religion. It was a real tree that grew on the planet millenniums ago. It’s history is pan-cultural. Belief in it’s reality spans from deep within the stone age to the present. It has always been associated with divinity and immortality. It was the axis mundi otherwise known as the world tree to the cultures of that time.
Along with the Tree of Life is the Earth Goddess. The Earth Goddess is directly associated with the Tree of Life. Both are extremely potent symbols and both are embedded within the evolving cultures of early man which has their roots in the Andite culture. This is more than a story of a tree, a goddess and an immortal.
Do Varves, Tree-Rings, and Radiocarbon Measurements Prove an Old Earth?
Early versions[ edit ] The earliest illustration of a penjing is found in the Qianling Mausoleum murals at the Tang-dynasty tomb of Crown Prince Zhanghuai , dating to They brought back many Chinese ideas and goods, including container plantings. In the medieval period, recognizable bonsai were portrayed in handscroll paintings like the Ippen shonin eden Wooden tray and dish-like pots with dwarf landscapes on modern-looking wooden shelves also appear in the Kasuga-gongen-genki scroll.
In , dwarf trees displayed on short poles were portrayed in the Boki Ekotoba scroll. A close relationship between Japan’s Zen Buddhism and the potted trees began to shape bonsai reputation and esthetics.
The giant sequoia trees of California are known to live over 3, years, discerned through tree ring dating. Under normal circumstances, woody trees add one ring per year. A ring typically consists of a light-colored growth portion and a dark-colored portion produced in a stabilization season.
Units a measure of length equal to the average length of a stride, approximately 3 feet. See also Roman pace , geometric pace , military pace 3. Architecture architect a step or small raised platform 9. I do not, pace my rivals, agree with their ideas. Pace a company or herd of asses—Bk. According to one source which claims to have actually measured its speed, a snail moves at the rate of one mile in fourteen days.
The snail, like the turtle, is one of the slowest-moving creatures on the earth and has symbolized extreme slowness, tardiness, and sluggishness for centuries. Lightning travels at the speed of light, considered by modern scientists to be the highest attainable. The concept of lubricating a lightning bolt to reduce its friction with the air and consequently increase its speed is the apparent origin of this American term. The original expression, dating from at least , was hand over hand, a nautical term with the literal meaning of advancing the hands alternatively, as when climbing up or down a rope or when raising or hauling in a sail.
Still in nautical use, the phrase acquired the figurative sense of advancing continuously, as one ship gaining rapidly on another. It is in this sense that hand over fist was first used, about , according to OED citations.
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History[ edit ] The Greek botanist Theophrastus ca. In , the German-American Jacob Kuechler — used crossdating to examine oaks Quercus stellata in order to study the record of climate in western Texas. Kapteyn — was using crossdating to reconstruct the climates of the Netherlands and Germany.
What is Dendrochronology? Dendrochronology is the dating and study of annual rings in trees. The word comes from these roots: ology = the study of chronos = time; more specifically, events and processes in the past dendros = using trees; more specifically, the growth rings of trees Dendrochronologist a scientist who uses tree rings to answer questions about the natural world and the place of.
A new layer of wood is added in each growing season, thickening the stem, existing branches and roots. Although “tree” is a term of common parlance, there is no universally recognised precise definition of what a tree is, either botanically or in common language. Certain monocots may be considered trees under a slightly looser definition;  while the Joshua tree , bamboos and palms do not have secondary growth and never produce true wood with growth rings,   they may produce “pseudo-wood” by lignifying cells formed by primary growth.
They differ from shrubs , which have a similar growth form, by usually growing larger and having a single main stem;  but there is no consistent distinction between a tree and a shrub,  made more confusing by the fact that trees may be reduced in size under harsher environmental conditions such as on mountains and subarctic areas. The tree form has evolved separately in unrelated classes of plants in response to similar environmental challenges, making it a classic example of parallel evolution.
With an estimated 60, , species, the number of trees worldwide might total twenty-five per cent of all living plant species. The majority of tree species are angiosperms. There are about species of gymnosperm trees,  including conifers , cycads , ginkgophytes and gnetales ; they produce seeds which are not enclosed in fruits, but in open structures such as pine cones , and many have tough waxy leaves, such as pine needles. There are also some trees among the old lineages of flowering plants called basal angiosperms or paleodicots ; these include Amborella , Magnolia , nutmeg and avocado,  while trees such as bamboo, palms and bananas are monocots.
Wood gives structural strength to the trunk of most types of tree; this supports the plant as it grows larger. The vascular system of trees allows water, nutrients and other chemicals to be distributed around the plant, and without it trees would not be able to grow as large as they do. Trees, as relatively tall plants, need to draw water up the stem through the xylem from the roots by the suction produced as water evaporates from the leaves.
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A pH of 7 is neutral, acidic soils have a pH of less than 7 and alkaline soils have a pH of greater than 7. Phloem- also known as inner bark, phloem transports dissolved nutrients from the leaves to the other parts of trees and woody plants Photogrammetry – the science of interpreting and making reliable measurements from aerial photographs Photosynthesis – the process by which plants manufacture simple sugars in the presence of sunlight, carbon dioxide and water.
Chlorophyll is essential to the process Plantation – an artificially reforested area established by planting or direct seeding and usually made up of a single species Point Source Pollution – sources of water pollution generally a man-caused pollutant which can be traced to a specific place or location i. The sun, wind, falling water and trees are examples of renewable resources Residual Stand – trees, often of saw log size, left in a stand after logging to grow until the next harvest Residual Trees – live trees left standing after the completion of harvesting Rill Erosion – an erosion process in which numerous small channels only several inches deep are formed; occurs mainly on disturbed and exposed soils Riparian – vegetation that grows close to water; creeks, springs, small lakes or swamps.
Seed Tree Method – a natural regeneration method where all but a few trees are removed from the harvest area at one time. The tips of shoots contain the apical meristem.
Dendrochronology is the formal term for tree-ring dating, the science that uses the growth rings of trees as a detailed record of climatic change in a region, as well as a way to approximate the date of construction for wooden objects of many types.
Anabaena The Three Domains of Life As previously noted, stromatolites are most often described as biogenically-produced structures formed by colonies of photosynthesizing cyanobacteria. However, this is an enormous oversimplification given that the weight of scientific evidence suggests that all three domains of life the Archaeans, Eubacteria, and Eukaryotes appeared in the Archaean Era, and thus the so-called microbial mats would have contained representatives among all three domains.
Just how and when the base of the tree of life split into the three main branches remains one of the most important questions in all of biology and science, and is the source of constant scientific dispute. Which of the prokaryotes came first, the Archaeans or the Eubacteria remains unresolved, and a consensus has emerged that these primitive microorganisms laterally exchanged genes further confounding attempts to validate what begat what during to course of early evolution on earth.
Lateral gene transfer belies the concept of the single common ancestor see Woese, While formation by colonies of cyanobacteria is probably the primary mechanism for formation of surviving stromatolites in the deep time of the Archaean and half way through the Proterozoic, it is unlikely to have been the only mechanism. Recent research Gupta, a, b, and an extensive literature indicates the other prokaryotic and the most genetically diverse domain of life, the Archaeans , evolved alongside each other and possibly swapped genes with the Eubacteria.
All prokaryotes both Eubacteria and the Archaeans reproduce by cell division binary or multiple fission and, lacking sex, are essentially clones and among the slowest evolving organisms.
Over the weekend, a powerful winter storm slammed into California and Nevada, prompting flooding and mudslides in some regions. The Associated Press reports it might be the biggest storm to hit the region in more than a decade. On Sunday, a volunteer at the state park reported that Pioneer Cabin had not survived. It’s unclear exactly how old the tree was, but The Los Angeles Times reports that the trees in the state park are estimated to be more than 1, years old.
tree ring – Any of the concentric rings of the cross-section of a tree trunk, representing a year’s growth, or the layer of wood produced by a year’s growth in a woody plant; also called annual ring.
Many believe love is a sensation that magically generates when Mr. No wonder so many people are single. A few years ago, I spoke to a group of high-schoolers about the Jewish idea of love. I’ll define it, and you raise your hands if you agree. Love is that feeling you get when you meet the right person. And I thought, Oy. This is how many people approach a relationship. Consciously or unconsciously, they believe love is a sensation based on physical and emotional attraction that magically, spontaneously generates when Mr.
And just as easily, it can spontaneously degenerate when the magic “just isn’t there” anymore. You fall in love, and you can fall out of it. The key word is passivity.